8 different types of contraceptives

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By Dr Sunil Eshwar
New Delhi, Nov 25 (IANSlife) Contraception aims to prevent pregnancy by halting egg production, or by preventing implantation. Certain types of contraception can be used to prevent pregnancy, and certain types also protect against sexually transmitted illnesses (STIs).

Condoms:

This is the only kind of contraception that protects against and prevents most STIs. This contraceptive technique may be used on request, is easily available, hormone-free, and can be readily used. Male condoms roll on an erect penis and function as a physical barrier to the transmission of sexual fluids between the male and female. The female condom is applied directly before intercourse in the vagina. Based on traditional use, the female version is not as efficient as the male latex condom, and it might take quite a bit of effort to become acclimated to it.

Combined pill:

The combination oral contraceptive pill is commonly referred to simply as “the pill.” It includes oestrogen and progesterone, two synthetic female hormones. These hormones are naturally generated in a woman’s ovaries. The pill’s hormones inhibit a woman’s ovaries from producing an egg (ovulating). They also make it more difficult for sperm to reach an egg or for an egg to implant in the uterine lining. The pill is most commonly used to avoid conception, but it can also be used to treat painful periods, heavy periods, PMS, and endometriosis

Intrauterine System (IUD):

This tiny, T-shaped device is inserted within a woman’s uterus by a qualified healthcare practitioner and is constructed of material containing either copper or progesterone hormone. It is a reversible, long-acting contraception that may last anywhere from three to ten years, depending on the kind. To prevent pregnancy, certain IUDs contain hormones that are gradually released. If fitted by a healthcare practitioner within five days (120 hours) of having unprotected intercourse, the IUD can be an effective emergency contraception.

Contraception implant:

A tiny, flexible rod is inserted beneath the skin of a woman’s upper arm to release a version of the hormone progesterone. The hormone inhibits the ovary’s ability to release an egg and thickens cervical mucus, making it difficult for sperm to enter the womb. The insertion of the implant involves a minor procedure using local anaesthesia to fit and remove the rod, and it must be renewed every three years.

The ‘Morning After’ pill:

If contraception was not used or a condom had broken during sex, the “Morning After” Pill, also known as the “contraceptive pill,” can be used to prevent pregnancy after intercourse. While it is frequently referred to as the “morning after” pill, it can last up to five days after unprotected intercourse. It is more effective if taken during the first three days following intercourse. When used within the first three days after sex, it prevents around 85 percent of anticipated pregnancies, but should not be used regularly and should be reserved for emergency use only.

Contraceptive ring:

This technique consists of a flexible plastic ring that continually releases hormones and is inserted into the vagina. It stays in place for three weeks, then you remove it, rest for a week, and replace it. The ring secretes the hormones oestrogen and progesterone. These are the same hormones found in the combination oral contraceptive pill, although at a lesser dose.

Diaphragm:

It is a tiny, soft silicon dome that is inserted into the vagina to prevent sperm from entering the uterus. It, like a condom, creates a physical barrier between the man’s sperm and the woman’s egg. After intercourse, the diaphragm must remain in place for at least six hours. It must be removed and cleaned after six hours, but no later than 24 hours after intercourse.

Sterilisation:

Sterilisation is the act of totally removing the body’s ability to reproduce. It is a long-term, or rather permanent, contraceptive option for those who are certain they’ll never desire children or don’t want to have any more. Both women and men can be sterilised, and the procedure is done under general anaesthesia in a hospital.

(Dr Sunil Eshwar, Lead Consultant – Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Aster RV Hospital)

Source: IANS

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Does MBA really help in getting a better job offer ?

Does MBA really help in getting a better job offer ?

Most students pursuing an MBA come with the sole objective of having a decent job offer or a promotion in the existing job soon after completion of the MBA. And most of them take loans to pursue this career dream. According to a recent survey by education portal Campusutra.com  74% MBA 2022-24 aspirants said they would opt for education loans.

There are exceptional cases like those seeking master’s degree or may have a family business to take care of or an entrepreneurial venture in mind. But the exception cases are barely 1%. For the rest 99%, a management degree is a ticket to a dream job through campus placements or leap towards career enhancements. Stakes are high as many of them quit their jobs which essentially means loss of 2 years of income, apprehension and uncertainty of the job market. On top of that, the pressure to pay back the education loans. Hence the returns have to be high. There is more than just the management degree. Colleges need to ensure that they offer quality management education which enables them to be prepared for not just the demands of recruiters and for a decent job but also to sustain and achieve, all along their career path.

  • So, what exactly are the B Schools doing to prepare their students for the job market and make them industry ready ?
  •  Are B schools ready to deliver and prepare the future business leaders to cope up with the disrupted market ?  

These are the two key questions every MBA aspirant needs to ask, check and validate before filling the MBA application forms of management institutes. And worth mentioning that these application forms do not come cheap. An MBA aspirant who may have shortlisted 5 B Schools to apply for, may end up spending Rs 10,000.00 to Rs 15,000.00 just buying MBA / PGDM application forms.

While internship and placements data of some management institutes clearly indicates that recruiters today have specific demands. The skill sets looked for are job centric and industry oriented. MBA schools which have adopted new models of delivery and technology, redesigned their courses, built an effective evaluation process and prepared the students to cope with the dynamic business scenario, have done great with campus placements despite the economic slow down.

However, the skill set being looked for by a consulting company like Deloitte or KPMG may be quite different from FMCG or a manufacturing sector. Institutes need to acknowledge this fact and act accordingly.

  • Management institutes should ensure that students are intellectually engaged, self motivated and adapt to changes fast. In one word ‘VUCA ready’.
  • B Schools should encourage students to participate in national and international competitive events, simulations of business scenarios.
  • Institutes should have the right mix of faculty members with industry exposure and pure academics.

The placement records of 2021 across top management institutes indicated the fact that recruitment is happening, skilled talent is in demand and certain management institutions continued to attract recruiters even in the middle of an ongoing crisis.

It is time, all management institutes rise to the occasion, understand market realities and identify areas of improvement at both ends – students and faculty.

After all, the stakes are high at both ends. B Schools taking corrective measures will stay while those which are lagging will end up shutting down.

Author Name : Nirmalya Pal

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